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STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SHUNGITE ON MICROORGANISMS

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STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SHUNGITE ON MICROORGANISMS

Driaeva M. D., Sypchenko A. Y., Tuktamyshev I. S., Udina N. V., Khadartsev A. A.

microorganizms and shungite 


Introduction. People began to use shungite in water purification and conditioning in the late 80s. Shungite has been proven to be able to disinfect water [1] by removing bacterial cells and bacteriophages. Studies were conducted on the wastewater which underwent biological treatment at Saint Petersburg’s wastewater treatment facilities. The water with a cell concentration of 104-108 cfu/ml passed through a layer of shungite with 0.5-1.0 mm particles at a speed of 0.1 cm/min. This enabled the decontamination factor to reach 10, while all bacteriophages were removed completely. Shungite was also revealed to remove phosphorus from wastewater. These disinfecting properties of shungite were confirmed in the course of application [2] with the use of the water from Petrozavodskaya Guba Bay in Lake Onega.

The purpose of the research was to study the effect of shungite on various microorganisms.

Object and Methods. The object of the study included various families of pathogenic, opportunistic and nonpathogenic microorganisms requiring different conditions to live.

The Enterobacteriacea was represented by Е. Coli, as nonpathogenic for humans but important as indicating the water’s sanitary condition, and Salmonella enteritidis, as a pathogenic microorganism causing salmonellosis in humans and animals.

Pathogenic for humans corynebacteria were represented by Corynebacterium diphtheria (toxigenic) being of great epidemiological importance in terms of spreading and increasing the number of diphtheria cases in Russia today. Besides, diphtheria infection rates in Tula Region are many times as high as in The Republic of Karelia. Opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms were represented by Staphilococcus auretzs and Candida albicans, a fungus playing an important role in pathologies in humans and animals.

Shungite powder (5 and 10 g) was put into two 250-gram glass flasks and was sterilized at 1 atm. for 30 minutes. Sterilized saline was added to the sterilized shungite to make two 100 ml 5 and 10 % shungite solutions under the physiological conditions allowing the microorganisms to survive. The control solution was a shungite-free physiological solution. A suspension of microorganisms was added to the solutions. Strain preparation was performed in accordance with the recommendations for growth medium biological parameters control (Moscow, 1980) [3].

18-20-hour cultures of the test strain which did not pass more than three passages in the growth media were used in the experiment. One-day cultures of the test strains were washed off with saline ensuring an optic turbidity standard of 10 units (one billion of microbial cells per ml). The initial standard suspension was used to make tenfold solutions by means of diluting by putting 0.5 ml of the culture into 6 tubes with 4.5 ml of saline and mixing it thoroughly. Each time a new dropper was used. A number of serial solutions were received, from 10-1 to 10-6 cells per ml. Then, 1 ml of the 10-4 suspension (equal to 100,000 microbial cells per ml) was added into 100 ml of the shungite physiological solution with and without shungite. The inoculation dose was 1,000 cells per ml in the experimental samples. The shungite and microorganism suspension experimental samples were left at room temperature (22-23 0С), and 24 and 48 hours later inoculation of solid growth media with 0.1 ml of the suspension was done based on the growth of each microorganism: Endo agar, Egg-yolk salt agar, Sabouraud’s agar, and blood agar. The results of the experiment are shown in the table below.

 

Table

The effect of shungite on the survival rates of microorganisms

 

No

Test strain

Inoculation dose*
cells per ml

Control physiological solution

Microbial cell concentration per ml

24 hours of  incubation

48 hours of incubation

24 hours

48 hours

 

5%

10%

 

5%

 

10%

1

Е. coli

1,000>

1,000>

1,000>

0

0

0

0

2

Salm. enteritidis

1,000>

1,000>

1,000>

400-420

80 -90

5 -10

0

3

С. dyphteria

1,000>

1,000>

1,000>

8 -12

3 -5

0

0

4

St. aureus

1,000>

1,000>

1,000>

380-460

280-350

25-40

8 -12

5

С. albicans

1,000>

1,000>

1,000>

850-900

500-550

800-850

450-500

 


Note: * – an inoculation dose of 1,000 and > of microbial cells was calculated by inoculation of corresponding growth media with 0.1 ml of the suspension. 120-130 colonies have been revealed growing in the growth media after the incubation.

The above table shows that shungite produces an inhibitory effect on microorganisms. The level of inhibition depends on the concentration of shungite and exposure.

Bactericidal properties of shungite are the strongest in regard to Е.coli, Salm. enteritidis and С.diphteria with a 10 % shungite solution in 48 hours of incubation. The most resistant are opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms, such as St. aureus and С. albicans.

The results of this study can be used in healthcare, specifically in prophylactics and treatment of such diseases as salmonellosis and diphtheria.

 

Literature:

1. Калинин А.И., Королева Е.Б и др. Доочистка сточных вод с использова-
нием природного минерала шунгита // Препринт 11109. М., 1989. 22 с.

2. Дюккиев Е.Ф., Калинин Ю.К. и др. Перспективы использования шунги-
товых пород при водоочистке и водоподготовке // В кн.: «Геология и охрана
недр Карелии». Петрозаводск, 1992. С. 20-42.

3. К контролю питательных сред по биологическим показателям: Методи-
ческие рекомендации. М., 1980. С. 8 9.

 


 

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