Pathogenic properties of electromagnetic radiation at a range of 1 GHz. A review of the experiments conducted on animals and human volunteers can be found in [5, 7]. A range with a central frequency of 1 GHz (⎣= 30 cm – wavelength) can be singled out from numerous frequency ranges of technical EMR in terms of its intense effect on large masses of people. Frequency bands with this frequency range (814–915 MHz and 935–960 MHz) are allocated for the development, purchase and application of cordless telephones in Russia; the following frequency bands are allocated for the application of digital cellular systems for mobile radio communication meeting the federal standard: 890–915 MHz and 935–960 MHz . International standards expand the frequency range: 450–1800 MHz with modulation frequencies (11, 50 and 217 Hz) . Three frequency ranges are used in the world, such as 450 MHz, the NMT standard (Nokia; included in the Russian federal standard); 900 MHz (Siemens, current European standard GSM-900); 1,800 MHz (Motorola, prospective European standard GSM-1800). The GSM-900 standard operating within the 1 GHz range dominates the Russian market. The clock rate of personal computers is expected to reach 1 GHz within a few years. Leading companies carry out presale preparation of personal computers with a clock rate of 800 MHz. Cellular communications at frequencies more or less than 450–1,800 MHz cannot be implemented due to their technical, financial and operational feasibility, while it is today’s performance level for personal computers; it will increase continuously in the future. The 1 GHz range applies to frequencies typical for the central nervous system (CNS)  and, more importantly, information exchange processes occurring in the DNA . Let us study the effect of such EMR on the brain, somatic and generative cells in terms of modification of gene activity as well as the delayed action of exposure to EMR on the genetic apparatus of human cells and reproduction. These fields are intended for information transmission and modulated, including by ultra-low frequencies Fмод<20 Hz (Fmod<20 Hz), a range that has been proven  to affect the central nervous system. When the carrier frequency fн (fc) is modulated (1 GHz range), the total spectrum
expands enhancing the damaging effect. The pathogenic health effect of discharge (gas-discharge) processes occurring in the environment such as automotive ignition systems, contact sparking in electric transport, welding, etc. The point is the discharge pulse has a wide spectrum
where А – amplitude, ⎤– angular frequency. For real (about 0.1 mcsec) discharge pulses, fundamental harmonics (1) have the following values: for f = 925 MHz Srel. =1.2·10-5, whereas for f = 1,055 MHz Srel. =9·10-5.
EMR emitted as a result of discharge processes also has local harmonic maximums within the 1 GHz range. Some facts are provided in  regarding the pathogenicity of the 1 GHz range. The physical fact  of the ‘Lamb shift’ in the energy levels of the electrons in an atom indicates that an electron in the first Bohr orbit is exposed to a charge that is greater than the nuclear charge. The Bethe formula adjusts the energy level in a hydrogen atom and water supply systems:
** 300021, Tula , Kutuzov Street, 100, Shungite, ZAO; Tel./Fax: 45-00-36
* Commonly referred to as FM stations (frequency modulation; used in VHF broadcasting)
where R – Rydberg constant (3.289⋅105 Hz); ћ – Planck constant (1.056⋅10-34 J); 〈=1/137 – fine-structure constant; Z – nuclear charge number; n – principal quantum number. The calculations made in (2) give E/W=1.54⋅10-7, where W – total electron energy in the first orbit of the hydrogen atom. The ‘Lamb shift’ for the hydrogen atom has a frequency of FL = 1057.77 MHz, meaning within the 1 GHz range. Interpreting the ‘Lamb shift’ we can assert that in the proton-electron system of hydrogen the energy of closely bound charges is also used for physical vacuum polarization, meaning bringing it into a state of stress which differs from the state of symmetry. Hydrogen is essential for life, so the FL frequency within the 1 GHz range introduces dyssymmetry in the structure of biomolecules causing an energy shift and changing the parameters of biochemical reactions at the cellular level which explains the negative health effect of 1 GHz EMR.
Experimental research of the effect of EMR at a range of 1 GHz on humans and animals. Below are the results of the experiments  which we consider to be the control ones with regard to the subsequent experiments involving shungite shielding. Experiments were conducted on C57/B16 mice (to easily register possible mutagenic effects) and randombreed mice. The experiment was conducted on groups of mice, each including two families: C57/B16 mice and randombreed mice. The families were simultaneously exposed to EMR for 15 minutes once a week for one month. During the first exposure, immediately after the apparatus was turned on, the experimental mice displayed abnormal behavior. When exposed to EMR, the mice began rushing about the cage, showed aggression to one another, and refused to eat. Their excitement lasted for 3 to 5 minutes after which the mice demonstrated passive behavior with sings of fear. Specifically, they shrank into the corners of their cage, bit, and did not let people touch them. Excitement and aggression were seen in the course of the whole experiment. The randombreed mice displayed significantly more excitement and aggression, while some of the C57/B16 mice proved EMR resistant and their behavior did not change. Upon the completion of the experiment, persistent behavioral abnormalities were seen in one family of C57/B16 mice and two families of randombreed mice. In these two families the male mouse displayed aggression to the female mice, and in one family of C57/B16 mice one of the female mice displayed aggression to the male mouse. The families with abnormal behaviors had to be withdrawn from the experiment. Baby mice were born in six families (three C57/B16 and three randombreed). All baby mice were born healthy and with no visible abnormalities. In order to identify the effect of EMR on newborn mice, two female mice with 2-day-old baby mice were introduced into the experiment. When exposed to EMR, the randombreed female mouse became highly aggressive biting five baby mice to death. The C57/B16 female mouse remained calm and displayed no aggression to her baby mice. In two days after being exposed to EMR, 3 out of 6 baby mice survived: 1 male baby mouse and 2 female baby mice which were not involved in the experiment as a new family. After the third exposure, two adult randombreed female mice died within 3 to 3.5 hours after being exposed to EMR. Autopsy revealed that the mice had developed ascites and mesenteric hyperemia, and had enlarged liver and spleen. Macroscopic changes in the organs of the dead mice indicate severe microcirculatory disorders and development of portal hypertension. Results of the experiments conducted on families consisting of the mice which had survived were similar to those of the first set of experiments. The male mouse in the family of C57/B16 mice displayed aggression and had to be withdrawn from the experiment. No baby mice were born in the family of randombreed mice after EMR exposure despite their normalized behavior. Four families of C57/B16 mice and three families of randombreed mice showed no response to ERM in the course of the experiment. This indicates the pathogenic effect of ERM on human health involving damaging both central and peripheral mechanisms of homeostatic regulation as well as the importance of individual EMR resistance. The lack of mutagenic effect is doubtful because it is very difficult to reveal mutations in a limited number of generations. A discharge oscillator was used in , meaning the ERM spectrum included other frequencies, however most of them were within the 450–1,800 MHz range for cellular communications.
The body of an animal is exposed to EMR in . However, it appears more reasonable to have the animal’s head exposed to EMR for people using cellphones generally have their heads exposed to EMR. A summary of such experiments is provided in . The heath effect of EMR with a range of 1 GHz was studied on human volunteers . The volunteers demonstrated severe bradycardia, increased electrokinetic energy of the buccal epithelium nucleuses, changes in the brain action currents during the initial period of EMR exposure; decrease in cerebral circulation and blood pressure; signs of anxiety, insignificant changes in 〈- and ®-rhythm in their EEG; suppression of slow waves in their EEG in the central, temporal and occipital regions, which means that EMR can produce effect on the brain action currents (however, its effect on the vital activity is still unclear). Out of six adenohypophysis hormones for thyrotropine a 21 % decrease in concentration in plasma was revealed. Changes in the function of the CNS and cardiovascular system were seen; head skin temperature increased by 4.7 о С and eardrum temperature by more than 0.5 о С. Insignificant changes in sleep, response to alcohol, memory, and cognitive capabilities were seen.
An increase in the range of brain action currents was the most significant after EMR was shut off for 15 to 20 minutes, meaning it is the effect of EMR on human health. Transient changes in the brain bioelectrical activity and hormonal activity shifts were observed . Local thermal effect of cellular communications can be reduced by means of shungite shielding. Data on ten human volunteers exposed to EMR once for 10 minutes are provided in the table below.
Comparative temperature changes before and after ERM exposure 
Temperature rise, оС
Upper part of the ear
EMR with various carrier frequencies, modulation frequencies and emitted by cell phones has effect on the brain and peripheral reception areas of the vestibular and auditory analyzer and retina with varying depth distribution and different doses absorbed . It is time the Ministry of Health urged children under 16 years of age and pregnant women to avoid using cell phones.
Experiments on identifying the shielding effect of shungite within a range of 1 GHz. 1 GHz EMR causes pathological processes affecting the vegetative nervous system, reproductive system, and blood formation system. Analysis of the results of the experiments was based on the dynamics in peripheral blood values which is considered the evaluation criterion of the shielding effect of shungite. An overall estimate of the morphological and functional changes in peripheral blood values was made. The experiments were conducted on adult Wistar rats with no significant pathological signs. The rats’ peripheral blood values were measured prior to the exposure to EMR. The rats were divided into two groups: control and experimental (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Diagram of the experiment in the control group (a) and with shungite shielding (b):
1 – ERM oscillator; 2 – bioobject; 3 – shungite shield
One EMR exposure lasted 30 minutes; total exposure time was three hours. Blood tests were performed in 24, 48 and 72 hours as well as on the sixth day of the experiment. Hemoglobin concentration was measured with the use of a ‘Minigem-1’ apparatus, while cellular elements of blood were counted with a counter.
Research results. Prior to the experiment, hemoglobin concentration was 155±10 g/l; color index – 0.98±0,1; total leukocyte count – 20.5±0.5х109/l; erythrocyte count – 4.5±0.3х1012/l; stab – 3±2; segmented – 58±5; eosinophils – 5±1; monocytes – 3±1; basophils – 0; lymphocytes – 38±2; – which is normal.
24 hours after the exposure blood values were normal in the control group and did not differ from those prior to the exposure: erythrocytes – 4.8±0.1; Hb – 155±5 g/l; color index – 0.98±0.1; total leukocyte count – 20.5±0.5х109/l; stab – 5±2; segmented – 55±5; eosinophils – 3±1; monocytes – 3±0.5; basophils – 2±1; lymphocytes – 32±2. Absolute values: stab – 243х109/l; segmented – 2,682х109/l; eosinophils – 146х109/l; monocytes – 146х109/l; basophils – 97х109/l; lymphocytes – 1,560х109/l. 48 hours after the exposure hemoglobin concentration decreased to 140±3.5 g/l; erythrocytes – 4.5±0.5х1012/l; color index – 0.88±0.3. In 48 hours total leukocyte count did not change and remained 20.5±0.5х109/l, but relative segmented neutrophil count in the leukogram decreased to 33±1.5%, while stab neutrophil count increased to 8±0.5%; eosinophils – 16±2.5%, basophils – 2±0.5%, relative monocyte count – 5±0.5%, lymphocytes – 36±1.5%. Stab neutrophils – 390х109/l; segmented neutrophils – 1,609х109/l; eosinophils – 780х109/l; monocytes – 243х109/l; basophils – 97х109/l; lymphocytes – 1,756х109/l. In 72 hours total erythrocyte count decreased to 4.3±0.5х1012/l; hemoglobin – to 126±2.5 g/l; color index – to 0.89±0.5, total leukocyte count increased to 35.5х109/l; stab neutrophils – 8±0.5%; segmented neutrophils – 32±1%; eosinophils – 18±1.5%; basophils – 3±1%; monocytes – 5±0.5%; lymphocytes – 34±1.5%; stab – 225х109/l; segmented – 902.5х109/l; eosinophils – 591х109/l; basophils – 84х109/l; monocytes – 140х109/l; lymphocytes – 957.7х109/l. On the sixth day hemoglobin concentration decreased to 110±5 g/l; erythrocytes – to 3.8±0.5х1012/l; color index – to 0.72±0.2. Total leukocyte count decreased to 32.5х109/l, while eosinophil count increased to 20.5±1.5%; basophils – to 5±0.5%. Relative drop in stab neutrophils – to 3±1.5%; segmented neutrophils – to 30±1.5%; monocytes – to 5.5±0.5%; lymphocytes – 36±1%. Absolute values of leukocyte cellular composition: stab – 92.3х109/l; segmented – 923х109/l; eosinophils – 634х109/l; basophils – 153х109/l; monocytes – 169х109/l; lymphocytes – 1,107х109/l. Dynamics in blood values is shown in Fig. 2.
Results received in the control group confirm the development of pathological reaction in the blood formation system. Initial blood values in the experimental group (Fig. 1, a): erythrocytes – 4.5±0.5х1012/l; hemoglobin – 159±2.5 g/l; color index – 1.07±0.8. Total leukocyte count – 22.5±1.5х109/l; stab neutrophils – 4±1%; segmented – 52±2.5%; eosinophils – 3±1%; basophils – 0; monocytes – 4±1%; lymphocytes – 38±2.5%. Absolute values: stab – 177х109/l; segmented – 2,311х109/l; eosinophils – 133х109/l; monocytes – 177х109/l; lymphocytes – 1,688х109/l.
24 hours after the exposure to EMR (Fig. 1, b): erythrocytes – 4.3±0.5х1012/l; hemoglobin – 160±5 g/l; color index – 0.98±0.3. Total leukocyte count – 25±0.5х109/l; stab neutrophils – 6±1.5%; segmented – 57±2.5%; eosinophils – 2±0.5%; basophils – 2±0.5%; monocytes – 5±1%; lymphocytes – 28±2.5%. Absolute values: stab neutrophils – 240х109/l; segmented – 2,280х109/l; eosinophils – 80х109/l; basophils – 80х109/l; monocytes – 200х109/l; lymphocytes – 1,120х109/l.
In 48 hours the following blood values were normal: erythrocytes – 4.5±0.5х1012/l; hemoglobin – 155±5 g/l; color index – 0.98±0.2. Total leukocyte count was 30.5±1.5х109/l which is slightly above the normal level. Relative leukocyte count: stab – 8±2%; segmented – 72±5%; eosinophils – 5±0.5%; monocytes – 3±0.5%; lymphocytes – 11±0.5%. Absolute leukocyte distribution: stab – 262х109/l; segmented – 2,360х109/l; eosinophils – 163х109/l; basophils – 32.7х109/l; lymphocytes – 3,606х109/l.
In 72 hours hemoglobin concentration decreased to 148±2 g/l and erythrocyte count to 4.3±0.5х1012/l; color index – 0.95±0.3; total leukocyte count increased to 32.5х109/l; relative stab neutrophil count was 5±1%; segmented – 60.5±0.5%; eosinophils – 5±0.5%; basophils – 1.5±0.5%; monocytes – 3±1% and lymphocytes – 20±1.5%. Absolute leukocyte count: stab – 154х109/l; segmented – 1,861х109/l; eosinophils – 154х109/l; basophils – 46х109/l; monocytes – 92.3х109/l; lymphocytes – 6,153х109/l.
t, hour 6 days
Fig. 2. Dynamics in relative leukocyte count in the control group: 1 – segmented; 2 – lymphocytes; 3 – eosinophils; 4 – stab; 5 – monocytes;
6 – basophils
On the sixth day of the experiment erythrocyte count was 4.5±1.5х1012/l; hemoglobin – 144±1.5 g/l, and color index – 0.92±0.2. Changes in the leukogram included a decrease in total leukocyte count to 30.5±0.5х109/l; at the same time there was an increase in relative stab neutrophil count to 6.5±0.5%; segmented – to 65.5±0.5%; eosinophils – to 6.5±1.5%; basophils – 0.5±0.1%; relative monocyte count was 3±0.5%; lymphocytes – 18±0.5%. Absolute leukocyte distribution: stab – 213х109/l; segmented – 2,147х109/l; eosinophils – 213х109/l; basophils – 16.3х109/l; monocytes – 98.3х109/l; lymphocytes – 5,901х109/l. Dynamics in blood values is shown in Fig. 3.
t, hour 6 days
Fig. 3. Dynamics in relative leukocyte count in the experimental group:
1 – segmented; 2 – lymphocytes; 3 – stab; 4 – eosinophils; 5 – monocytes;
6 – basophils
Conclusion. During the 6-day experiment involving shungite shielding there has been a slight decrease in hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte count which, however, stayed within the normal range. Analysis of the leukogram has revealed a slow development of eosinophilia and basophilia which are the major changes observed in the control group. Analysis of the dynamics in relative and absolute eosinophil and basophil count indicates activation of the factors stimulating the development of eosinophilia within 48 hours after the experiment due to a 5 % increase in relative eosinophil count with absolute values reaching 163х109/l. These values are within the normal physiological range. In six days there has been a 6.5 % increase in relative eosinophil count with absolute values reaching 213х109/l. Despite the development of eosinophilia, there has been a slower increase in eosinophil count in the experimental group as compared with the control group.
Distinctive features of the changes observed in the cellular composition of blood in the experimental group include the formation of neutrophilic leukocytes in 48 hours, while in the control group there has been a progressive decrease in both relative and absolute neutrophilic leukocyte count. There has been a decrease in lymphocyte count in the experimental group within 48 hours followed by an increase up to the initial levels by the sixth day of the experiment. The development of morphological and functional reactions in the system of blood formation and peripheral blood is slower when shungite is used for shielding. Shungite, as a shielding factor, suppresses and slows down the development of pathological reactions in response to the exposure to 1 GHz EMR. Changes in hematological values in the control and experimental group when exposed to 1 GHz EMR are similar to those when exposed to 37 GHz EHF EMR which indicates a common damaging mechanism.
Thus, we can assert with confidence that the specific structure of С60 carbon (fullerene structure of the forth carbon form) found in shungite makes it promising to use it as a shield protecting from the pathogenic effect of EMR.