Shungite’s water filtering and disinfecting properties are beyond question [3, 4]. However, the unique structure of C60 makes one think of its application in radioecology, provided that today’s technetronic world is literally pierced through with electromagnetic radiations (EMR) of technical origin. Moreover, the frequency ranges of some of them – perhaps, most of them – are pathogenic for human health .
Current radioecology analysis [5-9] confirms this conclusion which is very sad for modern homo sapiens. EMR emitted from such popular technologies that most people use on a daily basis as PC screens  and cellphones  is very dangerous (Numerous VHF broadcasting stations located in big cities are hardly any less dangerous…). The thing is their EMR frequencies are within a 1-GHz range called “Lamb frequency” in physics which is considered highly pathogenic for all living things.
According to our experimental research , EMR with a frequency of 1 GHz (λ = 30 cm) causes damage to the central nervous system (CNS), has a negative effect on the reproductive function in animals, and leads to genetic mutations. Our conclusions are in line with the results of researches conducted by other scientists [7–9].
Obviously, shungite is not a panacea for all disadvantages of urbanization and radioecological disasters but we have set a goal to conduct a comprehensive study of the properties of this mineral regarding its ability to protect (neutralize) living organisms against hazardous radiations. We have decided to begin our experimental research with evaluating the effect of low-intensity EHF radiation on the red bone marrow (RBM) and blood cells of an object while shielded with shungite. EHF EMR with a frequency of f = 37 GHz has been selected as biotropic for any living organism, meaning producing the least negative effect, which is expected to highlight the minimizing effect of shungite on radiation pathogenicity.
* 300026, Tula, Lenin Prospect, 104, GUP NII Novykh Meditsinskikh Tekhnologiy; Tel./Fax: (0872) 33-22-09; E-mail:
** 300021, Tula, Kutuzov Street, 100, Shungite, ZAO; Tel./Fax: (0872) 45-00-36.
2. Shungite shielding experiment
The diagram of the experiment is shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The diagram of the experiment conducted on the control group (а) and with a shield (б):
1 – EHF EMR radiator; 2 – bioobject; 3 – shungite shield
The expected difference in the results of the experiment in the diagrams in Fig. 1, a and Fig. 1, б is considered to be due to the following two major factors: a) presence of ancient organic artifacts in the shungite mineral (shungite is believed to be around two billion years old [2, 3]) which allows us to assume that shungite has the effect of the “evolutionary memory” of living matter ; b) diffraction scattering of the electromagnetic waves (EMW) of EHF EMR on the spherical C60 molecules (like similar phenomena in technical electrodynamics [12, 13]); moreover, in one of the experiments a shungite ball (Fig. 2) generally used in massotherapy  was used as a shield (Fig. 1, б).
The purpose of our experimental research was to determine a possibility of using natural shungite as a shield protecting against nonthermal-intensity EHF EMR. According to some previously conducted experiments , 37 GHz EHF EMR at an intensity of less than 0.3 mW/cm2 is a factor causing a number of pathological changes. It has been determined that the pathological changes affect, above all, the most reactogenic, proliferating and differentiating morphological structures such as RBM and peripheral blood cells.
The methods and stages of conducting the experiment with the use of shungite fully corresponded to those applied for studying the effect of low-intensity EHF radiation on the morphological structure of RBM and blood cells. The results of the previously conducted experiments were used as the control results (see Fig. 1, а). Apart from the control group’s results, the blood test results of the experimental rodents were recorded before the experiment.
Fig. 2. Experimental installation (Diagram 1, б) with the use of a shungite ball (top view)
The experiments to determine the shielding effect of shungite were conducted on adult Wistar rats. The exposure of the experimental rodents to EHF EMR fully corresponded to that of the control group. The rats were exposed to 37 GHz EHF EMR at an intensity of less than 0.3 mW/cm2 for 15 minutes. The morphological structure of their RBM and peripheral blood cells was analyzed in 24, 48 and 72 hours. Since the dynamics of pathological changes depends on exposure duration, the rats’ RBM and peripheral blood cells were analyzed after a single 15-minute exposure and after a total exposure to EHF EMR of 60 minutes (15 minutes x 4 days). The general diagram of conducting the experiment is shown in Fig. 1, б.
RBM morphological structure and peripheral blood erythrocyte count, hemoglobin count and white blood count were analyzed.
Blood samples were collected from the tail vein. The blood was stained using the Romanovsky – Giemsa method. Blood cell composition was determined with a C-4 “Stimul plus” counting device. Hemoglobin concentration was measured with a “Minigem-540-M-1” hemoglobin-measuring apparatus.
3. Results of the experimental research
Prior to the exposure, peripheral blood test results were normal (Table 1, 2).
The rodents were divided into two groups based on the chirality of EHF EMR. The first group was exposed to levorotatory EHF EMR, while the second group was exposed to dextrorotatory EHF EMR, meaning the use of EHF EMR with an anticlockwise (L-form) and clockwise (D-form) rotation of the plane of polarization of EMW, respectively. Respective designations are L-EMW and D-EMW. It should be noted that plane-polarized EMW (with no rotation) were used in the control group .
Analysis of the rodents after a single L-EMW exposure revealed a number of changes in their blood test results. Caused by an increase the rats’ stab neutrophil count to 1.5 % and increase in their segmented neutrophil count to 58 %, their total leukocyte count increased in 24 hours after the first L-EMW exposure reaching 25.5±0.5х109/l. The relative count of other forms of leukocytes corresponded to that prior to the exposure and was as follows: eosinophils – 0.5 %, basophils – 0, lymphocytes – 37.5 %, monocytes – 2.5 %.
The rats’ red blood cell count did not change 24 hours after the first 15-minute L-EMW exposure: erythrocytes – 5.4х1012, Нb – 152 g/l, color index – 0.85.
48 hours after the exposure, the absolute leukocyte count increased to 35±1.5х109 due to the development of neutrophilic leukocytosis. The relative count of stab neutrophils increased to 5.5 % and segmented neutrophils to 70 %. The relative count of other forms of leukocytes was as follows: eosinophils – 1 %, basophils – 0, lymphocytes – 22 %, monocytes – 1.5 %.
Due to an increase in the relative lymphocyte and monocyte count, the absolute lymphocyte and monocyte count was calculated: erythrocytes – 4.5х1012, Нb – 133 g/l, color index – 0.84. The absolute count of lymphocytes 48 hours after the exposure was 7,700, monocytes – 525.
72 hours after the exposure, the total leukocyte count decreased to 33.55±1.5х109. Analysis of the white blood count indicated that the relative count of stab neutrophils was 2.5 %, segmented neutrophils – 65 %, eosinophils – 1 %, basophils – 0, lymphocytes – 31 %, monocytes – 0.5 %. The absolute count per microliter was as follows: stab neutrophils – 83, segmented neutrophils – 2,170, eosinophils – 33, lymphocytes – 10,385, monocytes – 167; erythrocyte concentration decreased to 4.3х1012, Нb – 128 g/l, color index – 0.9.
Pathomorphological changes of neutrophilic leukocytes were revealed in the blood films characterized by hypertrophy and hypersegmentation of nucleuses. Erythrocytes showed anisocytosis and poikilocytosis. Macrocytes and leptocytes were identified.
The experiment conducted on the second group exposed to D-EMW for the first time, revealed a number of functional and morphological differences regarding the dynamics of their blood test results as compared with those of the rodents from the first group.
The erythrocyte and hemoglobin count did not change 24 hours after the first 15-minute D-EMW exposure: total leukocytes – 20.5±1.5х109/l, stab neutrophils – 0.5 %, segmented neutrophils – 56 %, eosinophils – 0.3 %, basophils – 0, lymphocytes – 37.5 %, monocytes – 2.7 %; erythrocyte count – 5.5х1012/l, Нb – 150 g/l, color index – 0.82.
48 hours after the exposure, the leukocyte count increased to 25±1.5х109/l due to an increase in the stab neutrophil count to 1.2 %. The relative count of segmented neutrophils – 55.3 %, eosinophils – 0.3 %, basophils – 0, lymphocytes – 37.5 %, monocytes – 2.7 %; erythrocyte count – 5.5х1012/l, Нb – 150 g/l, color index – 0.82.
72 hours after the exposure, the total leukocyte count was 30.5±2.5х109/l. Leukocytosis developed due to an increased lymphocyte count which reached 42.5 %. The stab neutrophil count decreased to 0.5 %; segmented neutrophil count to 53.5 %. The relative count of eosinophils and monocytes did not change and was 0.3 % and 3.0 %, respectively; at the same time a 0.2 % basophil concentration was identified in the blood film. Having converted the relative leukocyte count values per microliter of blood into absolute ones, we received the following results: stab neutrophils – 152, segmented neutrophils – 16,317, eosinophils – 91, basophils – 61, lymphocytes – 12,962, monocytes – 915. The morphological changes included presence of neutrophils with hypersegmented nucleuses in the blood film.
Changes in the red blood count included a decreased erythrocyte count of 4.6х1012/l and Нb – 145 g/l, color index – 0.95.
By comparing our results with those of the control group, we revealed a number of peculiarities in the white blood count dynamics.
The distinctive features in the white blood count dynamics in the experimental rodents exposed to L-EMW include the development of neutrophilic leukocytosis in 48 hours after the exposure and a decrease in the leukocyte count below normal levels in 72 hours after the exposure. Changes in the white blood count are caused by a decrease in the amount of neutrophilic leukocytes down to normal levels occurring along with an increase in the absolute amount of lymphocytes which, however, does not exceed the physiological parameters. Changes in the erythrocyte and hemoglobin count are characterized by a progressive decrease in their amount. Within 72 hours, the erythrocyte count decreased from 5.4х1012 to 4.3х1012, Hb – from 152 g/l to 128 g/l, indicating the development of anemia in this group of experimental rodents. The white blood count and red blood cell count dynamics is shown in Fig. 3-6.
Thus, the dynamics in blood test results indicates that there is a slower increase in the total amount of leukocytes in the rats exposed to L-EMW with the use of shungite shielding. The white blood count dynamics is largely based on the changes occurring in the amount of neutrophilic leukocytes. The development of neutrophilic leukocytosis is seen in 48 to 72 hours, while the amount of neutrophils stabilizes reaching normal levels by the sixth day. In the control group of experimental rodents, however, the development of neutrophilic leukocytosis occurred within the first 24 hours after the exposure, and a progressive decrease in the amount of neutrophilic leukocytes along with an increase in the amount of lymphocytes was seen in 72 hours. The peculiarity of the white blood count dynamics is that in terms of its relative and absolute values its upper limit was exceeded due to an increase in the amount of neutrophils which caused the development of leukocytosis in 24 to 48 hours after the exposure. Fluctuations of the relative and absolute amount of lymphocytes were within the normal range. Therefore, we should highlight minimization of the effect of L-EMW exposure on specific immune system components with the use of shungite shielding. At the same time, a negative dynamics in the amount of erythrocytes and hemoglobin count is seen corresponding to that of the rodents from the control group and indicating the development of hemolysis.
Analysis of the results of the experiments conducted with the use of D-EMW and shungite shielding indicates a weaker pathological effect of this disturbing factor in comparison with both the control group and the group of rodents exposed to L-EMW with the use of shungite shielding. Unlike the previously analyzed groups, prior to being exposed to D-EMW with the use of shungite shielding, the blood test results corresponded to the initial values for the first 24 hours. Changes in the white blood count were seen 48 hours after the exposure characterized by an increase in the amount of leukocytes due to an increased stab and segmented neutrophil count which did not exceed normal levels. The red blood cell count did not change within 48 hours. There was an increase in the amount of leukocytes in 72 hours due to an increased lymphocyte count which did not exceed the upper limit, either. The dynamics in the red blood cell count in 72 hours was insignificant so the changes in the erythrocyte and hemoglobin count should not be considered to be a response to the disturbing factor.
The white blood count and red blood cell count dynamics is shown in Fig. 7-10.
The results of our experiments indicate that D-EMW exposure, when shielded with shungite, does not cause any significant abnormalities in the cellular composition of blood. Insignificant quantitative changes in the amount of neutrophilic leukocytes, lymphocytes, erythrocytes and hemoglobin which were within the physiological normal range were seen within 72 hours.
We should also mention a number of peculiarities revealed while analyzing the hematologic values. These include the dynamics in the diagrams reflecting the total count of leukocytes, relative count of neutrophils and lymphocytes. The dynamics observed in the diagrams reflecting the effect of D-EMW corresponds to that of L-EMW and differs only in the values of the indexes under study. In addition, we should note the development of basophilia and eosinophilia seen after the exposure to D-EMW.
In general, the results of the experiments allow us to assume that the use of shungite shielding minimizes the damaging effect of EHF EMR on living organisms. The shielding effect is the strongest with regard to D-EMW, while shungite shielding of L-EMW fails to stop the development of pathological processes but only slows them down which, however, can be considered a positive factor.
The use of EHF EMR with a rotating plane of polarization of EMW, unlike the control group  where EHF EMR had linear polarization with no rotation, is more adequate to the way natural and technical fields impact human health. Thus, we should also stress a more accurate way of conducting the experiment.
As to a stronger shielding effect regarding the effect of D-EMW on a bioobject, it probably had to do with the fact that most living things on Earth tend to exhibit right-side orientation.
In conclusion, let us clarify the meaning of the term “shielding”. For the purposes of this research, “shielding” means not just some physical shielding of an object from EHF EMR (like in technical systems) but shielding in order to protect this bioobject against the negative factors of radiation due to a specific molecular organization of shungite which is described above.