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CAPABILITIES OF SHUNGITE FOR DRINKING WATER CONDITIONING AND TREATMENT OF SKIN DISEASES

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CAPABILITIES OF SHUNGITE FOR DRINKING WATER CONDITIONING AND TREATMENT OF SKIN DISEASES

 Disinfection with shungite

 

V. N. Morozov, E. V. Natarova, V. V. Platonov, N. A. Rudneva, I. I. Tuktamyshev, I. Sh. Tuktamyshev, A. A. Khadartsev

 

Medical Faculty of Tula State University

NII Novykh Meditsinskikh Tekhnologiy, Shungite, ZAO

Tula State Pedagogical University, Tula, Russia

 

 

      Human activity in nature is associated with the necessity to harmonize their relationships. Urbanization has caused numerous anthropogenic disasters affecting human health as a noospheric constituent. Harmonizing components are to be searched for in nature itself, thus limiting the damage the civilization causes to itself.

 

      Water is essential for human life, especially drinking water. Concerns over the quality of drinking water expressed by scientists led to issuing a decree of the Government of the Russian Federation № 292 dated 03.06.1988 ‘On the Concept of the Federal Targeted Programme “Provision of Drinking Water to the Population of Russia”.’ However, this programme was never included into the list of federal targeted programmes, while the financing from regional and municipal budgets was unsatisfactory.

      Thus, current financing of drinking water supply objects in Tula Region does not exceed 29 %. The technical state of its water supply systems is unsatisfactory and their wear-and-tear exceeds 60 % in the region, reaching 80% in Shchyokinsky, Novomoskovsky and other districts. Sludge storage tanks located in the water protection zones of the rivers running in Tula Region pose serious health risks to humans. Over 25 thousand tons of galvanic sludge from the ‘Stamp’ factory has been accumulated in the water protection zone of the Tulitsa River. Tulgorvodokanal silt basins have been overfilled polluting the Upa River with heavy metal salts. In 2001 the average annual concentration of manganese compounds in the Upper Don near the city of Donskoy was 36 maximum permissible concentrations, while the microbiological pollution in the area in proximity to the Mikhaylovsky water intake facility exceeded the permissible sanitary and hygienic standards by thousands times. Tula’s water treatment plants treat five times as much water and are in disrepair. The problem also occurs in other regions of Russia which is stated in the information provided on March 5, 2003 by the head of the Directorate of the Central District Inspectorate of the Chief Control Directorate of the President of the Russian Federation Y. Pydin.

 

      In view of the foregoing, it appears critical to search for new means of drinking water purification, disinfection and conditioning.

 

      Currently, most water treatment plants use chlorine gas for water disinfection which turns into hypochlorous acid forming hypochlorites. However, when combined with hypochlorites, organic compounds which can be found in water form organochloride compounds emitting long-lived radical and ion-radical particles. Free-radical processes may cause such diseases as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, as well as accelerated aging [5, 6]. Thus, disinfecting water with halogens which is necessary under the conditions of urbanization is a risk factor for a number of internal organs diseases.

 

      Another water disinfection method involves the use of porous materials such as activated charcoal which is extensively used not only in integrated water treatment systems but also in home systems. However, activated charcoal has a limited sorption capacity and is a growth medium for bacteria with graphite as a form of carbon with a layer structure. This means that chlorocarbons, dioxins – one of the most proactive oncogenes – can form when you boil chlorinated water.

 

      A distinctive feature of carbon (C) is that its valence (a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds) and coordination number (the number of neighboring atoms located at equal distances from the C atom) are equal. Its atomic number is 6, atomic weight – 12.01; it has two stable isotopes С12 (98.892 %) and С13 (1.108 %) and easily forms covalent bonds [2, 4].

 

      Diamond is another natural crystalline modification of carbon. Diamond has no multiple bonds; it has a regular crystal structure with equal interatomic distances which ensures its high hardness. The discovery of a ‘hollow molecule’ consisting of twisted graphite layers was first mentioned in 1966, while the existence of a stable closed-shell ion consisting of 60 carbon atoms was predicted in 1973, and then such a C60 structure was calculated theoretically. The surface of this compound consists of 20 scalene hexagons and 12 regular pentagons in which each atom simultaneously belongs to two hexagons and one pentagon (like a soccer ball). Carbon molecules synthesized in 1980-1990 by means of thermal decomposition of graphite were named fullerenes after American architect Fuller who used a similar structure (truncated icosahedron) in dome-shaped building construction. Fullerenes and nanotubes are jointly known as carbon microclusters [3, 7].

 

        Today fullerene hydrides are used in new types of accumulator batteries, while scientists are still studying a possibility of using fullerenes in the production of polymers, rocket fuel, solid-state lasers, microelectronic devices, and anticancer drugs. Several years went by after the synthesis of fullerenes before natural fullerenes were discovered in Karelian shungite. This is when an assumption was made regarding the connection of the healing effect of the waters and mud of Martsialnye Vody, a spa town founded by Peter I, with fullerenes. First attempts have been made to use shungite and zeolite in water purification.

 

       Fullerenes have been proven very active in oxidation-reduction reactions occurring in the body based on the free-radical mechanism which can be explained by the fact that they readily react with free radicals. Information about their strong antioxidant effect along with activation of lipid peroxidation indicates that fullerenes are modifiers, catalysts of the said processes. By activating the water’s molecular oxygen, microclusters remove radical and ion-radical particles from it [6].

 

      Shungite has been used in medicine, including preventive and rehabilitation medicine, as well as for health-improving purposes, by various medical institutions, while its sanitary and hygienic compliance with performance and safety standards is confirmed by Gossanepidnadzor (State Sanitary and Epidemiologic Inspectorate) institutions (statement № 3Б-159 of 03.29.93 of the Leningrad Regional Gossanepidnadzor Center, Faculty of Common Hygiene of Leningrad Sanitary and Hygeinic Medical Institute of 12.27.91, First Pavlov State Medical Institute of Leningrad of 07.20.93, Republic Hospital of Karelia № 1177 of 13.08.98 etc.).

 

       The following general effect of shungite-based mineral preparations has been revealed:

 

- Skin irritation relief, inflammation protection and soothing due to their bactericidal properties;

 

- Vasodilation, circulation stimulation and skin regeneration which improves skin structure;

 

- Accelerated cell renewal and epithelialization;

 

- Disinfection;

 

- Optimization of acid-base balance and protective properties of the skin;

 

- Accumulation of structured water in cells enriching them with essential mineral nutrients;

 

- Anti-allergic and detoxication.

 

       Shungite applications, water paste mixed with zinc and other pastes as well as 25 % shungite ointments are used for treating skin diseases. A significant positive effect has been revealed for treating allergic dermatosis, psoriasis, discoid lupus erythematosus, and pyodermia. Facial masks with concentrated shungite water (shungite-infused for 3-5 days) or paste are applied for 20-30 minutes for skin care.

 

       10 children aged 8 months old to 17 years old diagnosed with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis were treated at the Tula Regional Dermatovenereologic Dispensary. Two patients aged 16 to 17 years old suffered from psoriasis; four patients aged 8 months old to 10 years old suffered from atopic dermatitis; and four patients aged 3 to 8 years old suffered from allergic contact dermatitis.

 

       The process was in a stationary phase in children with psoriasis with the following diagnoses: atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Symptoms included exudation (atopic dermatitis), erythema, infiltration, peeling, dryness, while allergic dermatosis caused itching with varying degrees of severity.

 

       Shungite was applied in the following two forms: rich pastes and shungite baths. The shungite pastes were applied to treat children suffering from psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, while the baths were also used to treat children with atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Shungite pastes were applied in the form of monotherapy for local treatment.

 

The following results have been received:

 

- Psoriasis – infiltration of psoriatic plaques improved in 14 days; full regression has not been achieved.

 

- Atopic dermatitis – erythema improved in 2-3 days; full recovery was seen in 4-5 days, exudation (observed in an 8-month-old child with atopic dermatitis – an infantile form) was treated in 3 days. Infiltration improved significantly in 10 days; peeling – in 12-13 days. Dryness improved in 4-5 days which is relatively fast. However, itching has not disappeared fully.

 

The best results were observed in patients with allergic contact dermatitis treated with shungite baths even when their disease was extensive. Erythema and dryness regressed in 4-5 days. Infiltration improved in 4-5 days, while full recovery was seen in 7-9 days.

 

The use of shungite contributed to a reduced recovery time for patients with allergic contact dermatitis and a milder course of atopic dermatitis in children.

 

       Shungite is used in water purification and conditioning for preventive and health-improving purposes. Along with its bactericidal properties, shungite has sorption properties depositing toxic substances as sediment. Its specific surface is up to 30 m2/g, total pore volume – 0.05-0.15 sm3/sm3, effective radius – 30-100 Å. Shungite ensures that oil products, phenols, dioxines and wood hydrolysis products are removed from the water. As an electrical conductor, shungite can be used in flow electrolysis with a saturated shungite electrode to remove up to 90 % of metals from the water, including nickel, cobalt and zinc. Due to its bactericidal properties, shungite removes bacterial cells (such as colon bacillus and comma bacillus), low-molecular impurities, organic substances, phosphides (pesticides), pathogenic saprophytes, helminth eggs, and protozoa. In our research shungite’s bactericidal effect has been confirmed [8] in 100% of cases with cultivation with the use of the media of such microorganisms as diphtheria bacillus and salmonella.

 

       Perhaps, the most efficient means of water purification is its electrochemical activation performed in the cathode chamber of an electrochemical reactor turning the ions of heavy metals into insoluble hydroxides which are then removed in the flotation reactor. Microorganisms and microbial toxins are killed in the anode chamber, while oxidative destruction of organic compounds occurs. Chlorine-containing oxidants formed as a result of water anodic treatment turn into hydroperoxidates. This technique has been implemented in Izumrud house systems, AGAT-M systems featuring six water purification stages, 8-stage TOPAZ-M system, and QUARZ technological process [1].

 

       Unfortunately, treated according to this technique, drinking water loses many of its properties it has due to its richness in salts and microelements giving the water its taste and ensuring that it is healthy for human health. This is achieved by conditioning which can be performed in many ways. Yet, the most efficient and natural conditioning method is the one involving shungite.

 

       Our experimental study has shown the importance of shungite in providing the body with essential biologically active elements. Introduction of 0.1 of shungite into the stomachs of 30 rats twice a day for 14 days led to significant changes in the rats’ looks and behavior which differed from those in the control group. The rats were more active, including sexually, and their fur was thicker. The following system changes have been discovered (Table):

 

 

Table

 

Dynamics in the condition of the rats’ body systems prior to and after shungite application (n=30, M±m)

 

 
Parameters

 

Control Group

Experimental Group

Blood pressure, mm Hg

102,0±1,01

97,0±0,79*

Bleeding time, sec

69,0±1,02

88,0±1,17*

Platelet concentration, 109/l

470,0±7,89

420,0±7,11*

Platelet adhesiveness, %

18,0±0,82

14,0±0,78*

Coagulation time, sec

130,0±6,75

197,0±2,50*

Recalcification time, sec

41,0±0,75

46,0±0,76*

Glomerular filtration, mcmol/l

10,6±0,08

11,0±0,10*

Soluble fibrin, mcmol/l

0,22±0,03

0,18±0,01*

Fibrin degradation products, nmol/l

42,0±1,11

99,4±2,86*

Heparin concentration, U/l

0,50±0,03

0,70±0,02*

Antithrombotic activity-III, %

90,3±1,32

97,0±1,86*

Protein C activity, %

92,0±1,06

98,0±1,12*

Plasmin activity, mm2

9,0±0,84

16,0±0,85*

a2-macroglobulin, mcmol/l

3,9±0,07

2,8±0,11*

a1-antitrypsin, mcmol/l

38,5±1,12

32,0±1,34*

Lipid hydroperoxides, OE/ml

1,32±0,03

1,08±0,08*

Malonic dialdehyde =, mcmol/l

0,73±0,03

0,60±0,03*

Antioxidant activity, %

25,0±1,01

29,0±1,21*

Catalase activity, mcat/l

12,0±0,38

15,0±0,95*

Glucose concentration, mmol/l

4,6±0,05

4,2±0,08*

Lactate concentration, mcmol/l

1,10±0,04

1,02±0,05

Adrenaline concentration, nmol/l

1,80±0,03

1,60±0,07*

HA concentration, nmol/l

4,20±0,03

4,07±0,08*

Serotonin concentration, mkg/l

0,42±0,01

0,60±0,06*

Acetyl chlorine concentration, nmol/l

97,0±1,38

140,0±7,23*

Cortisone concentration, nmol/l

63,2±1,12

53,0±3,42*

Immunoglobulins G, mcmol/l

53,1±0,97

43,0±1,51*

Immunoglobulins A, mcmol/l              

6,65±0,16

4,40±0,17*

Immunoglobulins М, mcmol/l

0,50±0,03

0,63±0,05*

Hypothalamus Ach, nmol/g

8,3±0,11

5,6±0,18*

Hypothalamus HA, nmol/g

0,58±0,01

0,68±0,03*

Hypothalamus gamma aminobutyric acid, mkg/g

420,0±10,1

580,0±15,7*

KASPA

1,03±0,01

1,40±0,06*

Note: * – accuracy p < 0.05 as compared with the control group

 

 

 

         Bodily reactions aimed at activation of holynergic mechanisms, antioxidant and anticoagulative processes have been confirmed along with immunosuppression which indicates activation of syntoxic mechanisms of adaptation, stress-limiting systems. Therefore, shungite can be considered belonging to a group of adaptogenes with a syntoxic effect.

 

         Thus, it is recommended to use shungite in water conditioning for extra disinfection, as well as for treating skin diseases due to the fact that its fullerenes participate in the activation of syntoxic mechanisms of adaptation.

 

 

 

 

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